Tools for

Magnetogenetics


Magnetogenetics, or the use of electromagnetic control, involves activating cells using magnetic fields. With magnetogenetics researchers have found a way to control neurons with electromagnets.

 


Non-invasive vs temporally precise

Optogenetics and chemogenetics both have pros and cons. Optogenetics is extremely temporally precise, for example, but to get light into the brain, which this technique requires, implants and wires are needed. 

Chemogenetics uses the DREADD technology (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs), sensitizing neurons for activation by a specific drug-like molecule. These actuators can be put in the animal’s drinking water, making this a non-invasive method, but it is not as temporally precise as some experiments require. Additionally, repeated activation means repeated administrations, which is not that efficient. 

With magnetogenetics, researchers have a non-invasive method that seems to have the best of both: this technique is non-invasive, yet temporally precise. It is also effective in deep brain tissue, works in several areas simultaneously, suitable for long-term studies, and relatively safe.

magnet red magnetogenetics
 


Clinical applications

Magnetogenetics even seems to show promise in some clinical applications:

  • Case #1: Creating the “dream tool”

    Similarly to optogenetics and chemogenetics, neuronal cells are sensitized for activation; the activator in this case is instead a magnet. To accomplish this, researchers fused the nonselective cation channel TRPV4 to the paramagnetic protein ferritin, creating the tool “Magneto” which can be delivered through a single viral vector into the brain region of interest. 

    In March 2016 Michael Wheeler and his colleagues at the University of Virginia reported their findings of using electromagnetic control in Nature Neuroscience. They demonstrated the effectiveness of Magnetogenetics in vitro and in vivo in both zebrafish and mice. Ali Deniz Güler (leading biology professor) says they might have discovered a ‘dream tool’ in controlling neural circuits.

    In further experiments, they developed Magneto2.0 to control DR1 (dopamine receptor 1) while mice were exposed to a magnetized chamber. Researchers were able to record an increase in firing rate from these neurons, confirming the possibility of controlling deep brain tissue. Then, in a real-time place preference test, mice preferred the magnetized arm, as the magnets activated the dopamine neurons sufficiently to serve as a reward for the mice. Behavioral measurements were taken automatically with EthoVision XT video tracking

    Read more about this study in this blog post

  • Case #2: Controlling feeding behavior

    For many reasons, much research is carried out examining feeding behavior, weight, and blood glucose levels. The ventral medial nucleus of the hypothalamus has been the focus of many of these studies, as it is known to regulate feeding behavior. To understand the neurological pathways underlying homeostasis disturbances, blood glucose levels, feeding behavior disorders, etc., and to explore treatment options, tools like electromagnetic control or magnetogenetics show great promise. 

    Also in March 2016, Sarah Stanley and her colleagues from the Rockefeller University in New York published their finding using electromagnetics to study how the brain controls glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. In this case, TRPV1 was fused to ferritin. Using an electromagnetic field, and targeting the ventromedial hypothalamus, researchers were able to remotely turn feeding behavior on and off in mice. 

 



Complete behavioral and equipment control

The creation of new tools such as Magneto furthers scientific inquiry by leaps and bounds. EthoVision XT video tracking software can do the same for behavioral assessments. 

With EthoVision XT researchers are able to carry out complete behavioral experiments; full system integration allows real-time control of hardware based on timing and/or animal behavior. Many behavioral paradigms of interest are automatically measured and assessed, to easily examine behavioral impacts of innovative new neuroscience tools. 

 
white rat looking over edge of lab cage mirror
 


References

 


Relevant blogs

magnetogenetics

No science fiction: Magnetogenetics and how to induce animal behavior

Optogenetics has been invaluable in many brain studies, chemogenetics has been a good non-invasive alternative. Magnetogenetics is the new kid on the block. Can it do better?
 
Ready to kick start your research?
Want better insights and faster results? Contact us now to learn how we can help you!

Full name

Email address

Country