Many researchers code muscle movements to learn more about pain, happiness, or engagement. They use the Facial Action Coding System which provides them with a technique for the reliable coding and analysis of facial movements and expressions. With The Observer® XT it is possible to manage the whole FACS or parts of it, allowing comprehensive coding when needed. Video and codes can easily be synchronized and The Observer XT offers multiple analysis options, such as reliability analysis.
Interested? Read the white paper on this subject.
“The Observer is an excellent tool to code the complexity of facial expressions, their on- and offset, their time course and their changing intensities” [Dr. Miriam Kunz, Germany]
Non-verbal behavior studies
Research has demonstrated that most human communication is non-verbal, and only measurable by means of observations. Methods range from straightforward live observations with a handheld device to elaborate lab studies, and from video analysis with The Observer XT to automatic facial expression recording with FaceReader™. FaceReader is the revolutionary software which automatically analyzes facial expressions: happy, sad, angry, surprised, scared, and disgusted.
- Ekman, P.; Friesen, W. (1978). Facial action coding system: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto, Ca.: Consulting Psychologists Press.
A diverse collection of scientific articles citing Noldus products are published in renowned journals each week. The following list is only a small selection of scientific publications in different research fields.
- Forestell, C.A.; Mennella, J.A. (2012). More than just a pretty face. The relationship between infant’s temperament, food acceptance, and mothers’ perceptions of their enjoyment of food. Appetite, 58, 1136-1142.
- Kunz, M.; Lautenbacher, S. (2014). The faces of pain: A cluster analysis of individual differences in facial activity patterns of pain. European Journal of Pain, doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00421
- Platt, T.; Hofmann, J.; Ruch, W.; Proyer, R.T. (2013). Duchenne display responses towards sixteen enjoyable emotions: Individual differences between no and fear of being laughed at. Motivation and Emotion, doi:10.1007/s11031-013-9342-9.
- Zhang, X.; Yin, L.; Cohn, J.F.; Canavan, S.; Reale, M.; Horowitz, A.; Liu, P.; Girard, J.M. (2014). BP4D-Spontaneous: a high-resolution spontaneous 3D dynamic facial expression database. Image and Vision Computing, doi: 10.1016/j.imavis.2014.06.002.