CatWalk research

Here is a selection of recent papers that mention the use of CatWalk XT. If you feel your paper should be on this list, please let us know at

Boehmerle, W.; Huehnchen, P.; Peruzzaro, S.; Balkaya, M.; Endres, M. (2014). Electrophysiological, behavioral and histological characterization of paclitaxel, cisplatin, vincristine and bortezomib-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6 mice. Scientific Reports4, 6370.

Chen, Y.J.; Cheng, F.C.; Sheu, M.L.; Su, H.L.; Chen, C.J.; Sheehan, J.; Pan, H.C. (2014). Detection of subtle neurological alterations by the CatWalk XT gait system. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation11, 62. 

Dupleichs, M.; Masson, M.; Gauthier, O.; Dutilleul, M.; Bouler, J-M.; Verron, E.; Janvier, P. (2018). Pain management after bone reconstruction surgery using an analgesic bone cement: a functional noninvasive in vivo study using gait analysis. American Pain Society, 19(10), 1169-1180.

Hou, J.; Nelson, R.; Nissim, N.; Parmer, R.; Thompson, F.J.; Bose, P. (2014). Effect of combined treadmill training and magnetic stimulation on spasticity and gait impairments following cervical spinal cord injury (C-SCI). Journal of Neurotrauma, doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3096.

Hayakawa, K.; Uchida, S.; Ogata, T.; Tanaka, S.; Kataoka, K.; Itaka, K. (2015). Intrathecal injection of a therapeutic gene-containing polyplex to treat spinal cord injury. Journal of Controlled Release197, 1-9.

Hodgkinson, V.L.; Dale, J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Weisman, G.A.; Lee, J.; Gitlin, J.D.; Petris, M.J. (2015). X-linked spinal muscular atrophy in mice caused by autonomous loss of ATP7A in the motor neuron. The Journal of Pathology, doi: 10.1002/path.4511

Ishikawa, G.; Nagakura, Y.; Takeshita, N.; Shimizu, Y. (2014). Efficacy of drugs with different mechanisms of action in relieving spontaneous pain at rest and during movement in a rat model of osteoarthritis. European Journal of Pharmacology738, 111-117.

Madinier, A.; Quattromani, M.J.; Sjolund, C.; Ruscher, K.; Wieloch, T. (2014). Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke. PLoS ONE9(3), e93121.

Morellini, N.; Grehl, S.; Tang, A.; Rodger, J.; Mariani, J.; Lohof, A.M.; Sherrard, R.M. (2014). What does low-intensity rTMS do to the cerebellum? Cerebellum, doi:10.1007/s12311-014-0617-9.

Plucinska, K.; Crouch, B.; Koss, D.; Robinson, L.; Siebrecht, M.; Riedel, G.; Platt, B. (2014). Knock0in of human BACE1 cleaves murine APP and reiterates Alzheimer-like phenotypes. The Journal of Neuroscience34(32), 10710-10728.

Qin, L.; Jing, D.; Parauda, S.; Carmel, J.; Ratan, R.R.; Lee, F.S.; Cho, S. (2014). An adaptive role for BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in motor recovery in chronic stroke. The Journal of Neuroscience34(7), 2493-2502.

Qin, J.; Chow, S.K.H.; Guo, A.; Wong, W.N.; Leung, K.S.; Cheung, W.H. (2014). Low magnitude high frequency vibration accelerated cartilage degeneration but improved epiphyseal bone formation in anterior cruciate ligament transect induced osteoarthritis rat model. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage22, 1061-1067.

Rotermund, C.; Turckenmuller, F.M.; Schell, H.; Kahle, P.J. (2014). Diet-induced obesity accelerates the onset of terminal phenotypes in α-synuclein transgenic mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, doi:10-4444/jnc.12813.

Saal, K.A.; Koch, J.C.; Tatenhorst, L.; Szego, E.M.; Toledo Ribas, V.; Michel, U.; Bahr, M.; Tonges, L.; Lingor, P. AAV.shRNA-mediated downregulation of ROCK2 attenuates degerenation of dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced models of Parkinson's disease in vitro and in vivo. Neurobiology of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.09.013. 

Salvi, J.; Bertaso, F.; Mausset-Bonnefont, A.L.; Metz, A.; Lemmers, C.; Ango, F.; Fagni, F.; Lory, P.; Mezghrani, A. (2014). RNAi silencing of P/Q-type calcium channels in Purkinje neurons of adult mouse leads to episodic ataxia type 2. Neurobiology of disease, doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.04.005. 

Stelt, I. van der; Hoek-van den Hil, E.; Swarts, H.J.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hoving, L.; Skaltsounis, L.; Lemonakis, N.; Andreadou, I.; Schothorst, E.M. van. (2015). Nutraceutical oleuropein supplementation prevents high fat diet-induced adiposity in mice. Journal of Functional Foods14, 702-715.

Tatenhorst, L.; Eckermann, K.; Dambeck, V.; Fonseca-Ornelas, L.; Walle, H.; Lopes da Fonseca, T.; Koch, J.C.; Becker, S.; Tönges, L.; Bähr, M.; Outeiro, T.F.; Zweckstetter, M.; Lingor, P. (2016). Fasudil attenuates aggregation of a α-synuclein in models of Parkinson's diseaseActa Neuropathologica Communications22, 4-39.

Tsika, E.; Kannan, M.; Shi-Yan Foo, C.; Dikeman, D.; Glauser, L.; Gellhaar, S.; Galter, D.; Knott, G.W.; Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Moore, D.J. (2014). Conditional expresiion of Parkinson's disease-related R1441C LRRK2 in midbrain dopaminergic neurons in mice causes nuclear abnormalities without neurodegeneration. Neurobiology of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.08.027. 

Vidal, P.M.; Karadimas, S.K.; Ulndreaj, A.; Laliberte, A.M.; Tetreault, L.; Forner, S.; Wang, J.; Foltz, W.D.; Fehlings, M.G. (2017). Delayed decompression exacerbates ischemia-reperfusion injury in cervical compressive myelopathyJCI Insights2(11), e92512.

Yoo, S.-W.; Motari, M.G.; Susuki, K.; Prendergast, J.; Mountney, A.; Hurtado, A.; Schnaar, R.L. (2015). Sialylation regulates brain structure and function. The FASEB Journal, gj.15-270983.

Zhou, M.; Zhang, W.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.; Zheng, W.; Yang, Y.; Wen, P.; Xiao, H. (2015). Gait analysis in three different 6-hydroxydopamine rat models of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience Letters584, 184-189.

This is what users say about CatWalk

Monoarthritis - carrageenan administration into knee joint

"The CatWalk method has proven to be a useful method to measure behaviours associated with inflammatory ankle-joint pain, such as size of contact and time spent in contact with the floor by each paw, weight-bearing exerted by each paw, and the regularity of walking. Although similar parameters can be derived by previously publishedmethods, the CatWalk provides the most comprehensive analysis and offers objective and convenient quantification with minimal physical interference with the animals. The present study demonstrates that the method is suitable for evaluation of analgesic agents"

Moller, K.A.; Berge, O.-G.; Hamers, F.P.T. (2008). Using the CatWalk method to assess weight-bearing and pain behaviour in walking rats with ankle joint monoarthritis induced by carrageenan: effects of morphine and rofecoxib. Journal of Neuroscience, 174(1), 1-9.

Osteoarthritis -  injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the knee joint

"Interestingly, the gait analysis in OA animals revealed that none of the parameters measured, such as velocity of locomotion, stride length, and stance, stride and swing times, were altered, with the exception of load bearing. Our data show that OA animals minimize contact with the floor and exert less pressure on the painful limb during walking, thus showing a decreased weight bearing in the osteoarthritic limb. This is probably due to an increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and avoidance of noxious mechanical stimulation resulting from damage of the knee articulation induced by OA. Thus, CatWalk seems to be a good test to evaluate nociception in OA models by indirectly measuring weight load that may infer mechanical allodynia. This test avoids the pain-induced actions of the commonly used tests and the stress imposed on the animal during testing. Moreover, there is a good correlation with the daily situation of OA patients, in which walking causes the most severe mechanical stimulation and a shift in weight bearing off the affected leg occurs."

Ferreira-Gomes, J.; Adaes, S.; Castro-Lopes, J.M. (2008). Assessment of movement-evoked pain in osteoarthritis by the knee-bend and CatWalk tests: a clinically relevant study. The Journal of Pain, 9(10), 945-954.

Corticospinal tract damage - pyramidotomy model

"Thus, although we saw no difference in gross locomotor behaviours, such as co-ordination, the CatWalk allowed us to detect a slight disturbance in gait, specifically stride length"

Starkey, M.L.; Barritt, A.W.; Yip, P.K.; Davies, M.; Hamers, F.P.T.; McMahon, S.B.; Bradbury, E.J. (2005). Assessing behavioural function following a pyramidotomy lesion of the corticospinal tract in adult mice. Experimental Neurology, 195(2), 524-539.

Peripheral nerve regeneration - sciatic nerve crush

"The print area, although recovered on the photographic films (De Medinacelli method), where one does not need much pressure to get a print, did not return to normal in either rats or mice during the follow-up period when visualized with the CatWalk system."

"The CatWalk data in the mice indicate that, similar to rats, the mice also developed mechanical allodynia after nerve crush."

Vogelaar, C.F.; Vrinten, D.H.; Hoekman, M.F.M.; Brakkee, J.H.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Hamers, F.P.T. (2004). Sciatic nerve regeneration in mice and rats: recovery of sensory innervation is followed by a slowly retreating neuropathic pain-like syndrome. Brain Research, 1027(1-2), 67-72.

Acute pain - carrageenan-induced acute pain


"The present study demonstrates that CatWalk allows an automated, fast, objective and complete analysis of gait related changes after acute pain."

"CatWalk parameters related to single paws are strongly correlated to the development of mechanical allodynia as assessed by the von Frey withdrawal threshold."

"All together, this data show a shorter, lighter and delayed paw-floor contact of the ipsilateral paw, following the induction of a carrageenan-induced inflammation. More interestingly, the variability in the phase lag does not showany difference between the arrageenan and the control groups nor between the pre- and post-injection values in this study. This suggests a very precise adaptation in the changes in interlimb time relationship."

Gabriel, A.F.; Marcus, M.A.E.; Honig, W.M.M.; Walenkamp, G.H.I.M.; Joosten, E.A.J. (2007). The CatWalk method: a detailed analysis of behavioral changes after acute inflammatory pain in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 163(1), 9-16.

Neuropathic pain - chronic constriction injury

"We found a strong correlation between von Frey mechanical withdrawal thresholds and parameters obtained from CatWalk gait analysis."

"Moreover, the time courses of these changes in intensity and step phases are similar to that of the von Frey withdrawal thresholds, indicating that these CatWalk parameters parallel variations in mechanical allodynia in these rats."

"In summary, the CatWalk method allows for rapid and objective analysis of many locomotor parameters. In CCI rats, displaying mechanical allodynia, we demonstrated that measurements of paw pressure and duration of stance and swing phase obtained with the CatWalk method show a high degree of correlation with mechanical withdrawal thresholds as determined by application of von Frey filaments. This suggests that the CatWalk method might provide an alternative means to quantify mechanical allodynia. Moreover, since the CatWalk method is not limited to rats, it might become a practical tool to study mechanical allodynia in other animal models, in which von Frey probing can be more difficult."

Vrinten, D.H.; Hamers, F.F. (2003). 'CatWalk' automated quantitative gait analysis as a novel method to assess mechanical allodynia in the rat; a comparison with von Frey testing. Pain, 102(1-2), 203-209.

Parkinson's - bilateral partial 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model

"Our findings show that the CatWalk method is a very sensitive and objective test to assess motor impairment in the bilateral 6-OHDA rat model. The test was easy to carry out, fast in the execution and objective in its assessment."

"In conclusion, CatWalk analysis allowed us to conclude that, the STN is involved in dynamic and static gait functions of mainly the forepaws and limbs of rats with bilateral 6-OHDA treatment."

Vlamings, R.; Visser-Vandewalle, V.; Koopmans, G.; Joosten, E.A.J.; Kozan, R.; Kaplan, S.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Temel, Y. (2007). High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves speed of locomotion but impairs forelimb movement in Parkinsonian rats. Neuroscience, 148(3), 815-823.

Peripheral nerve injuries -  sciatic neurotmesis (complete nerve transection)


"The majority of these parameters is strongly impeded after neurotmesis, reaching levels up to 15% of those in the unaffected paw and it can be ruled out that these changes may be related to changes in gait velocity. Additionally, the impairments are very consistent without signs of recovery, which is obviously related to the fact that a resection gap of 1 cm prevents recovery."

"Hence, the main benefit of the CatWalk gait analysis is that it is a single behavioral test which can with a high sensitivity detect a large set of both dynamic and static velocity-controlled gait changes after neurotmesis"

Deumens, R.; Jaken, R.J.P.; Marcus, M.A.E.; Joosten, E.A.J. (2007). The CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of both dynamic and static gait changes after adult rat sciatic nerve resection. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 164(1), 120-130.

Peripheral nerve injuries - sciatic nerve crush injury model

"the present investigation has demonstrated that the CatWalk gait analysis is suitable for the measurement of behavioural recovery after complete rat sciatic nerve injury. The dynamic gait parameters, intensity of paw prints, and couplings phase lags are of particular interest when determining functional axon regeneration because these parameters undergo complete recovery within 4 weeks of sciatic nerve crush. The CatWalk gait analysis and more specifically the aforementioned parameters may be of high value in any future study-design focusing on therapeutic effects of repair strategies in adult rat sciatic neurotmesis models."

Bozkurt, A.; Deumens, R.; Scheffel, J.; O'Dey, D.M.; Weis, J.; Joosten, E.A.; Führmann, T.; Brook. G.A.; Pallua, N. (2008). CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 173(1), 91-98.

Peripheral nerve injuries - nerve gap model

"CatWalk, can simultaneously measure dynamic and static gait parameters as a complementary approach to other behavioral testing paradigms, to assess clinically relevant behavioral benefits. In this study, we found the restoration of motor function by DuraSeal approached the results of suture in both dynamic and static parameter in CatWalk analyses."

Lin, K.-L.; Yang, D.-Y.; Chu, I.-M.; Cheng, F.-C.; Chen, C.-J., Ho, S.-P.; Pan, H.-C. (2009). DuraSeal as a Ligature in the Anastomosis of Rat Sciatic Nerve Gap Injury. Journal of Surgical Research, article in press, doi:10.1016/j.jss.2008.10.020.

Traumatic brain injury - CCI


"The catwalkmethod used in the current study to assess gait function for laboratory animals in the setting of head trauma validates previous observations in humans."

Neumann, M.; Wang, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, S.M.; Jeng, L.; Bilgen, M.; Liu Jialing. (2009). Assessing gait impairment following experimental traumatic brain injury in mice. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 176(1), 34-44.

Spinal cord injury - lateral funiculus injury

"Gait analysis using the CatWalk was a more sensitive test of motor function following a lateral funiculotomy than the Forelimb Locomotor Scale Score (cylinder test). Animals in the opcontrol group were able to locomote but showed dysfunction of right forelimb, lack of interlimb coordination, and compensatory modifications in left forelimb function. In contrast, all measured gait parameters in NEP1-40-treated animals recovered to nearly normal levels."

Cao, Y.; Shumsky, J.S.; Sabol, M.A.; Kushner, R.A.; Strittmatter, S.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Lee, D.H.S.; Rabacchi, S.A.; Murray, M. (2008). Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide (NEP1-40) administration promotes functional recovery and axonal growth after lateral funiculus injury in the adult rat. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(3), 262-278.

Spinal cord injury - moderate contusion injury

"BUB C1q KO showed improved recovery on the fine details of gait as measured by CatWalk that were not reflected on the BMS scale. These findings illustrate the importance of using behavioral tests that are sensitive to the deficits predicted to be associated with a particular injury severity."

Galvan, M.D.; Luchetti, S.; Burgos, A.M.; Nguyen, H.X.; Hooshmand, M.J.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Anderson, A.J. (2008). Deficiency in complement C1q improves histological and functional locomotor outcome after spinal cord injury. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(51), 13876-13888.

Spinal cord injury - transection injury

"Using the BBB scoring method, rats in the CSTx, RSTx and Hx groups did not regain consistent hind/fore limb coordination during the entire period and their functional recovery was not significantly different between groups except for differences in the post-lesion dip. In contrast, quantitative CatWalk analysis revealed significant differences between the experimental groups for inter limb coordination (RI), but not for hind limb swing and stand parameters. Whereas CSTx animals performed almost like sham-operated controls, RSTx and Hx animals showed significant deficits in inter limb coordination in the CatWalk test."

Hendriks, W.T.J.; Eggers, R.; Ruitenberg, M.J.; Blits, B.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Verhaagen, J.; Boer, G.J. (2006). Profound differences in spontaneous long-term functional recovery after defined spinal tract lesions in the rat. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(1), 18-35.

Spinal cord injury - transection injury

"This test (ed., CatWalk) revealed significant improvement of treated animals towards a regular walking pattern at 15 weeks as compared to controls."

Klapka, N.; Hermanns, S.; Straten, G.; Masanneck, C.; Duis, S.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Müller, D.; Zuschratter, W.; Müller, H.W. (2005). Suppression of fibrous scarring in spinal cord injury of rat promotes long-distance regeneration of corticospinal tract axons, rescue of primary motoneurons in somatosensory cortex and significant functional recovery. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22(12), 3047-3058.

Spinal cord injury - contusion injury

"The CatWalk method enables detailed analysis of the observed functional recovery. By using phase lag variability as a parameter we exclusively focused on the coordination or coupling between the HLs. Our results indicate that the motor patterns of left and right HLs are relatively uncoordinated shortly after a spinal cord contusion injury."

Koopmans, G.C.; Brans, M.; Gómez-Pinilla, F.; Duis, S.; Gispen, W.H.; Torres-Aleman, I.; Joosten, E.A.J.; Hamers, F.P.T. (2006). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I and functional recovery from spinal cord injury under enriched housing conditions. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23(4), 1035-1046.